The Dairy Industry Management Institute of New Zealand (DIMINZ) was formed in 1908 to promote the technical aspects of the dairy industry in NZ; it merged with the NZ Dairy Technology Society in 1969 to form the Dairy Industry Association of NZ (DIANZ). Zhang et al. This chapter describes the influence of heat treatment on milk components and dairy product characteristics, as well as alternatives to heat treatment, such as membrane separation technology, pulsed electric field, and bactofugation. Yogurt had seen a similar volume decline but cheese and butter remained buoyant, each achieving growth above 3%. Most of the studies investigated single- and two-chamber MFCs with working volume ranging between 28 and 2000 mL. However, today it becomes more obvious that the problems are much more complex and related to all the phases in a products life cycle, from extraction of material to waste or deposition of the used product (Berkhout and Smith, 1999). This created another challenge, as when asked to provide evidence that the processed cheese product remained safe and compliant with the original science that facilitated its entry into the United States, the firm was unable to do so, neither having done the studies, nor able to find research specifically supporting the efficacy of the change that was made. The manufacturing process relies on pasteurisation to eliminate pathogens and technologies such as refrigeration, pasteurisation and sanitation to control spoilage and limit contamination. In the dairy industry, the microbial enzymes utilized have a significant role, where they are used to improve and enhance organoleptic features like aroma, color, and flavor, as well as giant yield of milk products. Every evaporator design will have a means of transferring heat energy through a heat transfer surface as well as a means to effectively separate the vapors from the residual liquid or solid. Several systems have been used to recycle this water, with various degrees of water product purity. For example, the addition of 0.01%–0.04% kappa carrageenan to cottage cheese can prevent the separation of whey, and a similar amount added to ice cream can prevent whey separation that may be caused by other gums that were added to the ice cream to control texture and ice crystal growth. A critical factor in the evolution of irrigation businesses relates to the employment and management of labor. Flow diagram of various processes occurring at a typical milk plant (http://www.agrifood-forum.net/publications/guide/d_chp2.pdf; http://www.fao.org.wairdocs/LEAD/X6114E/x6114e06.htm; http://www.edibon.com/products/catalogues/en/systems/pilotplants/LE00.pdf). In Membranes for Industrial Wastewater Recovery and Re-use, 2003. Even within regions such as Europe, the custom of milk consumption has varied greatly. Aerobic treatment processes are commonly used together with anaerobic processes for dairy wastewater treatment, in order to achieve the effluent discharge limits for agro-industry wastewaters (Demirel et al., 2005). Carbon dioxide addition, dealkalisation by ion exchange and UV sterilisation represents an improvement over filtration-based methods and has been implemented in some German facilities. Notably, these reactor systems offered high productivities when operated in nonintegrated mode, but utilization of the substrate was usually less than 50% of that present in the feed. Differences in how these are achieved distinguish one type of evaporator from another. Seaweed-derived hydrocolloids are widely used in the dairy industry. The dairy industry has seen a number of scandals in recent times, and firms must take measures to ensure that their supply Challenges and opportunities While the dairy sector is currently dealing with a number of challenges, favourable long term consumer trends and developing technologies As a result of deregulation, the number of dairy farms has fallen from 12,500 to approximately 5,200 today. Table 13.1. Conventional higher-pressure membrane filtration systems in MF or UF may also be applied.

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