<> stream �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���H�%_!�+�� � endobj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���H�%_!�+�� �� stream endobj Alloying additions are necessary for many reasons including: improving properties, improving corrosion resistance, etc. x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> 52 0 obj <> example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr. 16 0 obj endobj 39 0 obj <> <> <> x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endobj <> endobj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ 31 0 obj This type of steel is commonly used to produce profile steel, steel pipe, steel plate and wire. Bearing steels used for ball and roller bearing applications are comprised of low carbon (0.10 to 0.20% C) case-hardened steels and high carbon (-1.0% C) through-hardened steels. stream endobj 29 0 obj endstream <> 20 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ In order to view the E-book of Comparative World Steel Standards you must have PDF viewing software (such as Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader) installed prior to running the CD-ROM. Risø-R-1244(EN) 3 Contents 1 Introduction 5 2 Heat treatment of tool steels 5 2.1 As delivered condition 5 2.2 The heat treatment process 6 2.3 Influence of alloying elements 8 3 Principal alloying elements 10 3.1 Carbon 10 3.2 Chromium 12 3.3 Tungsten and molybdenum 12 3.4 Vanadium 13 3.5 Manganese 13 3.6 Cobalt 13 3.7 Silicon 13 3.8 Nickel 14 �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���B�%_!�+�� �� �4މ�nwbX���Yb�}������?�d���7�j�Q ��� ��\wËq�a' �B�QM���{;��d���aX���:�,��|d;���~�e���b��;�p� �J�}�\�N�#cX����9�̙2su���Vϳ���������Î���[. Before we look at a couple of common steel classification systems, let’s consider one more high-carbon metal, cast iron. 9 0 obj stream x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endobj 1 0 obj Alloying elements : chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, boron, copper and others. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ If you already have PDF viewing software installed, insert the CD-ROM into your CD drive and click the “View E-book” button in the software menu to open the E-book. x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ Steel classification is important in understanding what types are used in certain applications and which are used for others. x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ stream There are four basic types of cast iron: Gray cast iron , which is relatively soft. 4 0 obj <> CLASSIFICATION OF STEELS PRE SENTED BY :- Er. <> Saurabh Malpotra . <> <> x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endstream :�%kI Steels are alloys of iron and carbon plus other alloying elements.In steels, carbon present in atomic form, and occupies interstitial sites of Fe microstructure. 53 0 obj endstream endobj <> 51 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� endobj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��D�%_!�+�� � endobj <> Ltd., New Delhi, 2004. endobj 19 0 obj stream endobj Steel is hard, strong, bluish gray metal alloy of iron and is one of the most widely used material in the world, steel is Most important engineering and construction material. endstream Classification of Steel By Manufacturing Processing Hot Rolled Steel. stream Chromium-molybdenum heat-resistant steels contain 0.5 to 9% Cr and 0.5 to 1.0% Mo. 50 0 obj endobj 27 0 obj endobj <> <> REG NO:2010-NUST-BE-CHE-39 CHE-03 DUE DATE:26th april 2011.. WHAT IS STEEL? �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��R�%_!�+�� � <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���\�%_!�+�� �� endobj 42 0 obj <> endobj stream �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��X�%_!�+�� a� endobj stream endstream /Length 1135 >> stream x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> endobj 46 0 obj 8 0 obj stream endstream 12. Classification of Steels. �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���R�%_!�+�� �� x���Mo�F���4ٙ���dGuU8J"+�"��u�A�6n����+ɱ�U;������f���7$�7�����{�����;��w��czg��߻w�u�T}b��56�Š5A�������l�2�PJ�1B>x���‡��%&�ez��&��.L����A�_��:I1RH;���[��. endstream x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ stream endstream <> 7 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> <> endobj <> endobj endobj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��L�%_!�+�� �� stream 2.1 Local buckling 2.2 Classification 2.2.1 Classes of cross-sections 2.2.2 Classification process 2.3 Example 2.1 – Section classification For example, most commercial steels are classified into one of three groups: plain carbon, low-alloy, and high-alloy. x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ The carbon content of cast iron is 2.1 percent or more. <> 18 0 obj Hot rolled steel refers to various steels produced by hot rolling, and most of the steel is hot rolled. endstream 36 0 obj Used in Food, Chemical, Oil production and Power generation industries. <> 32 0 obj endstream 40 0 obj 41 0 obj 45 0 obj <> stream x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���@�%_!�+�� �� endobj December 2012; DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-391916-8.00006-6. 35 0 obj 12 0 obj <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���L�%_!�+�� u� 13 0 obj endstream <> Outside of the US it is commonly known as "A2 stainless steel", in accordance with ISO 3506 (not to be confused with A2 tool steel). stream Classification of Alloy steels 1. endobj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��\�%_!�+�� �� 1.6 Steel structures – Eurocode 3 1.6.1 Structural analysis 1.6.2 Sway stiffness 1.7 Steel design strength 1.8 Structural integrity . %PDF-1.4 <> Steels Series Steel Classification Systems. SAU RAB H M ALPOT RA Er. ... Request full-text PDF. endstream 28 0 obj endobj endobj <> <> 24 0 obj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���P�%_!�+�� �� CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL. CHAPTER 2 RESISTANCE OF CROSS-SECTIONS . 43 0 obj endstream endobj 38 0 obj endobj 23 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ Submitted to: SIR RASHID FIAZ. 11 0 obj stream <> endobj endobj <> endobj Submitted by: IMTISAL-E-NOOR. endstream 3 0 obj <> REFERENCES Materials Science and Engineering , V. Raghavan, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. <> 6 0 obj <>/Group <> <> <> Is slightly weaker than 304. endstream (Utensils at home are made of stainless steel) Chapter 4 - Classification of Steels, Welding of Mild Steels endobj endstream �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���D�%_!�+�� X� endstream stream example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr. stream �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��B�%_!�+�� �� <> 25 0 obj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���D�%_!�+�� 9� endobj endobj endobj Steel classification systems are set up and updated frequently for this type of information. endobj 21 0 obj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��T�%_!�+�� �� 33 0 obj �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���@�%_!�+�� �� endobj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endstream <> Arguably steels are well known and most used materials than any other materials. endobj Stainless steels contain sufficient amount of Cr which forms thin protective adherent layer of Cr2O3 film. <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���P�%_!�+�� �� endstream Request PDF | Surface defect classification of steels with a new semi-supervised learning method | Defect inspection is extremely crucial to ensure the quality of steel surface. 5 0 obj <> stream stream endobj 15 0 obj stream 10 0 obj <> Ferritic: Ferritic steels contain trace amounts of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than 0.1% carbon, along with other alloying elements, such as molybdenum, aluminum or titanium. endobj stream x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> 17 0 obj endstream 44 0 obj endobj 14 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endobj 22 0 obj endobj Austenitic steels form the largest portion of the global stainless steel market and are often used in food processing equipment, kitchen utensils, and piping. 30 0 obj stream endobj endobj endobj endobj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> Many of these steels are covered by SAE/AISI designations. stream Low alloy steels (Having 3 to 4% alloying element) 2. endstream Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ endstream stream endobj 47 0 obj [6] Type 304L—same as the 304 grade but lower carbon content to increase weldability. �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���X�%_!�+�� :� <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���T�%_!�+�� W� endobj endstream endobj <> <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$��H�%_!�+�� C� 26 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ Alloy Steels Any steel other than carbon steel is called alloy steels. <> �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���X�%_!�+�� � x�3R��2�35W(�2�300P@&�ҹ <> stream Type 304—the most common grade; the classic 18/8 stainless steel. High alloy steels (Having more than 5% alloying element) 13. <> endobj Stainless Steels Corrosion of carbon steels and low alloy steels is poor in severe environments. �ʁt�1H��@aL*9�K?$���T�%_!�+�� v� 37 0 obj 49 0 obj 48 0 obj 34 0 obj �+R@&�ҹ 6f� endstream endstream

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