These markets are in aluminum can alloys or as a master alloy for magnesium alloying element addition to other aluminum based alloys, additives for steel and nodular iron production, and magnesium die casting alloys in non-critical applications such as housings for portable electronics, or automotive interior components such as instrument panels. Approximately 3–20 min later, this process entered into the second stage. However, when magnesium exceeds the solid solubility in binary alloys it precipitates at grain boundaries as Al8Mg5, which is strongly anodic and promotes intergranular attack (see Corrosion, Intergranular). Generally immediately available in most volumes, AE Alloys™ are available as bar, ingot, ribbon, wire, shot, sheet, and foil. The die and billet both are heated to optimal forging temperature of the billet in the isothermal forging; then the billet begins to deform at low strain rate. It is commonly rolled and extruded, but typically not forged. Isothermal forming can significantly improve plasticity and flow capacity of the billet and decrease deformation resistance. Magnesium is added to non-heat-treatable wrought alloys for its solid-solution strengthening effect. The pinched-off crystallites form at intermediate strains of 1–2 (about 400 °C, l s−1 in Al–5Mg) and do not grow like nuclei since the substructure density inside is similar to that in the surroundings. Up to 90% of magnesium alloys are produced as castings, widely used in the aerospace industries. In order to solve precision forming problems of the complex-shape forgings and difficult-to-deformation materials, researchers proposed the isothermal forging technology in the 1960s. Silicon is a principal addition to most aluminum casting alloys because of the high fluidity associated with the aluminum–silicon eutectic. This is because of the inability of current refining technologies to adequately clean the variety of scrap produced during die-casting. 9.9. Calculated isothermal section through the Mg–Al–Fe phase diagram [13]. Other solute elements in aluminum, such as copper, zinc, and silicon are much less effective strengtheners, partly because they are caught up in large overaged precipitates in the hot working regime. The polarized optical microstructures exhibit crystallites about five times the TEM subgrain size and serrations subtending about five subgrains. They increase work-hardening since they are usually incoherent with the matrix, are nondeformable, and must be looped or bypassed by moving dislocations. Forms: 5" x … A few circular pores and micro-cracks formed on the ceramic coating surface; the number of the pores decreased, while the diameter of the pores increased as the anodizing treatment proceeded. 9.10. Instead, it is identified mainly as a special material, for example, for automobile and motorcycle racing parts, where low weight and high strength and rigidity are critical [4]. 1 shows the change of fuel economy of mass-produced automobiles as a function of vehicle weight. Post consumer magnesium separation begins when end-of-life vehicles enter as flattened hulks into a steel shredder plant. (1988) and Wearmouth, Dean, and Parkins (1973). (Bobby Kannan et al., 2008) for an Al-free rare earth containing alloy, ZE41 (Figure 5.5). However, the environment surrounding automotive design has recently changed due to an unprecedented revolution of the powertrain to reduce CO2 emissions. S. Das, in Materials, Design and Manufacturing for Lightweight Vehicles, 2010. 1. Namely, not only is titanium applied to lightweighting, it is also being newly applied to other automotive parts as the powertrain system evolves from a reciprocating engine to new propulsion systems for hybrid vehicles (HVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs), fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), and electric vehicles (EVs), as shown in Fig. Fig. Change of fuel economy of mass-produced automobiles as a function of vehicle weight [2]. Grain-refined castings are produced by adding zirconium and a series of Mg–Zn–Zr alloys have been developed which also respond to age-hardening. It is also reported that the anodizing voltage of diecast AZ91D in a 40°C sodium aluminate + potassium fluoride electrolyte varied in the range of 240–600 V, the current density varied in the range of 0.5–5 A/dm2, and micro-arcing was observed in the anodizing process. To increase the general use of titanium for automobile components in the future, it is important to consider the merits of practical use of titanium and its alloys in a total life cycle assessment (LCA) or value added as a unit or system only. Manganese must be carefully balanced with iron content (necessary to prevent soldering) to avoid … 3.20. Large particles >2 μm (Fe, Si intermetallic constituent phases) cause turbulent flow in the surrounding region leading to dense substructures. In this mode, an anodizing process may also be generally classified into four different stages: I-linear growing (the anodizing voltage increases quickly and linearly with time; there is no sparking, and gas evolution is not significant either); II-gas evolving (voltage keeps increasing, but the rate decreases with time; meanwhile, the gas evolution becomes much faster; sparking is insignificant); III-uniform sparking (anodizing voltage linearly increases with time again; sparking is clearly visible randomly over the specimen surfaces; the sparking activity together with gas evolution becomes more and more intense as the anodizing voltage increases with time); and IV-localized sparking (much more localized, intense vivid sparking arcs appear on the specimen surfaces; vigorous gas evolves from the sparking areas; the increasing of anodizing voltage with time slows down). 2 shows details of low-fuel-consumption technologies. Higher voltages lead to activation and dissolution of Mg–Al alloys accompanied by oxygen evolution.


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